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ISRO Sun Mission: Aditya L1 will be Launched on Saturday (Sep 2) at 11:50 am

ISRO’s Upcoming Aditya-L1 Mission: A Quest to Unveil the Sun’s Secrets

Date: August 30, 2023

In an exciting leap towards understanding one of the most enigmatic and influential celestial bodies in our solar system, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is set to launch the Aditya-L1 mission. Named after the revered Hindu solar deity, this mission aims to venture closer to the Sun than ever before, promising groundbreaking insights into its behavior, composition, and impact on space weather.

ISROIntroduction to Aditya-L1:

Aditya L1 shall be the first space based Indian mission to study the Sun. The spacecraft shall be placed in a halo orbit around the Lagrange point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system, which is about 1.5 million km from the Earth. A satellite placed in the halo orbit around the L1 point has the major advantage of continuously viewing the Sun without any occultation/eclipses. This will provide a greater advantage of observing the solar activities and its effect on space weather in real time. The spacecraft carries seven payloads to observe the photosphere, chromosphere and the outermost layers of the Sun (the corona) using electromagnetic and particle and magnetic field detectors. Using the special vantage point L1, four payloads directly view the Sun and the remaining three payloads carry out in-situ studies of particles and fields at the Lagrange point L1, thus providing important scientific studies of the propagators effect of solar dynamics in the interplanetary medium

The suits of Aditya L1 payloads are expected to provide most crucial informations to understand the problem of coronal heating, coronal mass ejection, pre-flare and flare activities and their characteristics, dynamics of space weather, propagation of particle and fields etc.

More Details


The major science objectives of Aditya-L1 mission are:

  • Study of Solar upper atmospheric (chromosphere and corona) dynamics.
  • Study of chromospheric and coronal heating, physics of the partially ionised plasma, initiation of the coronal mass ejections, and flares
  • Observe the in-situ particle and plasma environment providing data for the study of particle dynamics from the Sun.
  • Physics of solar corona and its heating mechanism.
  • Diagnostics of the coronal and coronal loops plasma: Temperature, velocity and density.
  • Development, dynamics and origin of CMEs.
  • Identify the sequence of processes that occur at multiple layers (chromosphere, base and extended corona) which eventually leads to solar eruptive events.
  • Magnetic field topology and magnetic field measurements in the solar corona .
  • Drivers for space weather (origin, composition and dynamics of solar wind .

The Aditya-L1 mission has been on ISRO’s radar for several years, representing a milestone in India’s space exploration journey. The mission’s primary objective is to study the Sun’s outermost layer, the corona, and the region just beneath it called the chromosphere. With the advancement of space technology, Aditya-L1 is poised to provide answers to long-standing questions about our Sun’s nature and its far-reaching influence.

The Scientific Significance:

The Sun, a blazing sphere of hydrogen and helium, holds within its fiery depths some of the most intriguing puzzles that have puzzled scientists for decades. One of the most baffling mysteries is the corona’s temperature, which defies conventional thermodynamics by being hotter than the Sun’s surface. The Aditya-L1 mission’s observations are expected to shed light on the mechanisms that drive this counterintuitive phenomenon.

Furthermore, the Sun’s activity, characterised by solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), has direct implications for Earth’s technological infrastructure. Solar flares are sudden bursts of energy and radiation, while CMEs release colossal amounts of solar material, impacting communication systems, power grids, and even posing a threat to astronauts in space. Understanding the triggers and behavior of these solar events is vital for enhancing our ability to predict and mitigate their potential impacts.

Mission Objectives and Instruments:

The Aditya-L1 spacecraft is equipped with a suite of sophisticated instruments designed to unravel the Sun’s mysteries. Some of the mission’s key objectives include:

  1. Probing the Solar Corona: The spacecraft will capture high-resolution images and spectroscopic data to analyse the composition and temperature variations of the corona. By scrutinising the corona’s behavior, scientists hope to uncover the mechanisms responsible for its elevated temperatures.
  2. Measuring Solar Winds: Aditya-L1 will closely study the solar wind, a stream of charged particles constantly emanating from the Sun. By analysing its speed and density, scientists can gain a better understanding of how solar wind affects the solar system and Earth’s magnetosphere.
  3. Unraveling Solar Flares: The mission’s instruments will observe and analyse solar flares, aiming to comprehend the intricate processes that lead to these explosive events. This knowledge is crucial for predicting space weather accurately.
  4. Tracking Coronal Mass Ejections: Coronal mass ejections are colossal eruptions of solar material that can have a significant impact on Earth’s space environment. Aditya-L1 will monitor the formation and trajectory of these events, contributing to improved space weather forecasts.

The Orbit and Technical Sophistication:

To achieve its mission objectives effectively, the Aditya-L1 spacecraft will be placed in a unique orbit around the L1 Lagrange point. This strategic location, approximately 1.5 million kilometers from Earth, ensures a stable view of the Sun without the interference of Earth’s atmosphere or magnetic field. This vantage point offers a rare opportunity to study the Sun’s phenomena up close.

International Collaboration and Impact:

The Aditya-L1 mission has garnered significant attention from the global scientific community. International collaboration in space research is increasingly becoming a hallmark of modern space missions, and Aditya-L1 is no exception. The data and insights gathered by the mission are expected to contribute not only to India’s scientific advancements but also to the broader understanding of solar physics and space weather worldwide.

A Glimpse into the Future:

As the Aditya-L1 mission prepares for its launch, it symbolises ISRO’s dedication to unraveling the cosmos’ mysteries and pushing the boundaries of scientific exploration. The mission’s findings could revolutionise our comprehension of the Sun, enhance space weather forecasting capabilities, and bolster the resilience of our technological infrastructure in the face of solar challenges.

In the grand tapestry of space exploration, Aditya-L1 is a crucial thread, woven with ingenuity, technological prowess, and an insatiable thirst for knowledge. It represents the human spirit’s unyielding quest to comprehend the universe, one solar mystery at a time.